Three Little Pigs

Three Little Pigs is arguably one of the most successful and well known of the Silly Symphony series. It is based on the popular fairy tale of the same name, which dates back hundreds of years. The Disney interpretation is the most recognized version and went on to win the 1934 Academy Award® for Best Animated Short Film.

It is the story of three swine brothers, Practical Pig, Fiddler Pig and Fifer Pig, who each build their own homes. Fifer Pig plays the flute, “doesn’t give a hoot and plays around all day” and builds his home of straw. Fiddler Pig, who “plays on his fiddle and dances all kinds of jigs,” builds his home out of sticks and, of course, Practical Pig, who plays the piano, builds his house out of bricks and mortar. We all know the outcome of this story once the Big Bad Wolf shows up!

The animation in this short was done by a number of Disney animation legends including Fred Moore, Norm Ferguson, Art Babbitt, and Dick Lundy. The short was a milestone in adding personality to the animated characters. You can see this in the pigs as well as the Big Bad Wolf in comparison to the characters in the previous short, Flowers and Trees.

Carl Stalling, who went on to become the legendary music director/composer for the classic Warner Bros. “Looney Tunes,” arranged the score for Three Little Pigs.

This short also featured the song Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf, which became a smash hit in the 1930s. Frank Churchill wrote the song with additional lyrics by Ann Ronell. Mary Moder and Dorothy Compton, who voiced Fiddler Pig and Fifer Pig respectively, sang it in the film. Billy Bletcher voiced the Big Bad Wolf and is best known for voicing Peg Leg Pete.

Aside from the commercial success of Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf, Frank Churchill wrote some of the most endearing music in the Disney catalog. Among those include Heigh-Ho, Whistle While You Work and Some Day My Prince Will Come from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. He co-wrote the Academy Award®-winning score for Dumbo and was nominated with Ned Washington for Best Song from that film for Baby Mine. Churchill was also nominated posthumously for co-writing the score for Bambi as well as the song Love Is a Song from that film.

Finally, it is certainly worth noting that the Library of Congress added Three Little Pigs to the National Film Registry in 2007. According to the Library of Congress, “Under the terms of the National Film Preservation Act of 1992, each year the Librarian of Congress, with advice from the National Film Preservation Board, names 25 films to the National Film Registry to be preserved for all time. The films are chosen because they are “culturally, historically or aesthetically significant.”

Flowers and Trees

The Silly Symphony short Flowers and Trees began as a black and white production but was quickly scrapped when the decision was made to use a new Technicolor three-strip color process. Up until the release of Flowers and Trees all the Disney animated shorts had been black and white. Walt Disney, convinced of the potential of this new color process, negotiated a contract with Technicolor for the exclusive use of three-strip process in animation. This effectively prevented other animation studios from using the process until after September of 1935, giving Disney a competitive edge in the marketplace.

Flowers and Trees showcases nature in all its springtime glory coming to life, literally with anthropomorphic trees and flowers as the characters. The trees and flowers begin by waking up, yawning, and washing. Once refreshed, a male tree creates a harp-like instrument by stretching some vines down from a bent tree trunk and playing music. A female tree begins to dance slightly while another tree conducts a group of chirping birds on its arm-like limb and flowers dance about.

The music was composed by Bert Lewis and Frank Churchill and uses a number of familiar classical tunes. Musically the short starts out with a serene quality, which could be seen as harkening back to the same Midwestern roots Walt Disney had with his experiences in Marceline, Missouri. Many of the scores for the Silly Symphony shorts have a simpler, more languid, symphonic quality in comparison to the jazz based themes found in the Fleischer cartoons, a main competitor to Disney, being produced in New York at the time.

That symphonic pastoral score plays as the courtship begins between the young male and female tree characters with the guy giving a flower tiara to the girl. The music quickly changes as a villainous old tree grabs the girl and starts dragging her off. The introduction of conflict was something that was absent from some of the earlier seasonally themed shorts and adds tension to the storyline of this short.

The young male tree rescues her and does battle with the old villainous tree. Eventually, the young male tree forces the villain backwards where he trips over a rock. The villain falls on his back, arms folded and pretending to be dead. A flower walks onto his chest while the well-known Funeral March theme by Chopin plays. But the villainous tree is not dead. Getting up, he starts a fire as revenge against the young tree couple.

The final three to four minutes of Flowers and Trees are virtually a medley of well-known classical favorites. Aside from Chopin’s Funeral March, a menacing fire certainly warrants the frightful but stirring music of Schubert’s Die Erlkonig, and Rossini’s famous “Storm” sequence from his Overture to William Tell. The forest comes back to life to the appropriate accompaniment of The Dawn, also from the William Tell.

Eventually a group of birds punch holes into a cloud allowing rain to dowse the fire. Vultures circle the charred remains of the villain tree and the forest is renewed to a sense of order once again. The short ends with nuptials for the young couple and the ubiquitous Wedding March in C major by Felix Mendelssohn. This is one of Mendelssohn’s best-known pieces – one that he wrote for a suite of music to Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream.

all about the schumanns

Robert Schumann was a fascinating person. We think of him as a composer first, but he also was quite a talented writer, penning articles, poetry, and reviews. His father was an author and a publisher, and Robert grew up around literature. He was a voracious reader, and at the ago of thirteen, wrote short articles for one of his father’s publications. In his passion for both literary matters and music, Robert Schumann embodies the quintessence of the Romantic spirit.

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Schumann was devoted to his own self expression, but also wrote about and reviewed the music of other composers. In earlier publications and in the Neue Zeitcschrift für Musik, a music magazine founded by Robert Schumann and Friedrich Wieck (who would become his father-in-law), Robert wrote articles—more than three hundred in total—about up and coming composers, new compositions, and the state of affairs for music in the nineteenth century. In these writings, he introduced a secret society called the League of David (Davidsbündler), a group of artists whose main purpose was to slay the Philistines. In this context, the Philistines were the makers and consumers of music that was banal and pedestrian. Schumann’s society had members like Eusebius, Florestan, and Raro, three imaginary men who represented aspects of Schumann’s own personality. He used these characters to advocate for other artists, and to debate and discuss the music of the day. As a champion of new music, Schumann supported the work of Chopin, Brahms, Berlioz, and others.

He lived for literature, art, and music. And in keeping with his stature as the model of a “Romantic,” we must of course mention the epic love story of Robert and Clara Wieck. What could be more romantic than a tale of forbidden love? When Robert was 21 years old, he began studying piano with Friedrich Wieck. Wieck not only taught piano, but had a prodigy for a daughter. Clara’s skill at the piano was well-known from her very first public appearance.

Robert moved in with the Wieck family, and eventually fell in love with Clara, much to Mr. Wieck’s consternation. Schumann kept very detailed journals, so we know that Robert and Clara kissed for the first time on November 25, 1835 when Robert was 25 and Clara was 16. Friedrich did everything he could to discourage this relationship, taking Clara away on tours that lasted months at a time, and forbidding their correspondence. Schumann, prone to depression, suffered a great deal from their separation. The young lovers went so far as to take up a court case, asking for legal permission to marry without Friedrich’s consent. This caused a rift between Clara and her father, and in the long battle that followed, Schumann’s depression worsened. Eventually, however, their case prevailed, and the two were married.

The Schumanns had eight children, and endeavored to find balance in their lives. Robert needed time and quiet to compose, Clara needed a place to practice so she could continue playing concerts. They faced the same challenges of any working couple with a large family. Sometimes the difficulty was in trying to find someone to care for the children, and sometimes it was simply finding the time and space to create. Sometimes there was tension because of Clara’s more public success as a performer (Schumann gave up performing years earlier because of an issue with his right hand). They experienced the loss of one of their children at the age of one. And then there were Robert’s severe bouts of depression.

Next weekend, LACO presents Schumann’s Second Symphony. Composed in a time of mental turmoil, this work represents a triumph of creativity over adversity. In the 1840s, Robert suffered from both depression and auditory hallucinations. Tinnitus was probably the cause of the constant ringing in his ears. He also experienced acute anxiety and worried about being poisoned by metal objects. By the 1850s, Schumann began to hear voices, heavenly choirs in his head, and sometimes he had demonic visions that frightened him. In fear that he might harm the members of his family, Schumann attempted suicide in 1854. He was rescued, but asked to be put in an asylum, where he remained for the last two years of his life.

The love story doesn’t end with Robert Schumann’s death, however. Clara remained devoted to her husband’s work and his memory. Clara spent the rest of her career playing Robert’s music, popularizing it. She was also named the editor of Robert’s complete works for the publisher Breitkopf and Härtel. She outlived her husband by 40 years, but remained unmarried for all that time. Robert paid tribute to this love and devotion while he was alive, and you can hear one such tribute in the Second Symphony. In the final movement of the Symphony, there is a reference to the last song in Beethoven’s song cycle “An die ferne Geliebte.”

In addition to love notes from Robert Schumann to Clara, LACO’s upcoming concert also features Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 17 in G major and the world premiere of Matthew Aucoin’s commission for Sound Investment, Evidence. It’s going to be a wonderful evening that celebrates the quintessential Romantic in Robert Schumann, the perfect Classicist in Mozart, and something entirely new that’s never before been heard by the public. Schumann would have approved heartily of the Sound Investment commission, because it encourages composers to write new music. No doubt composer Matthew Aucoin (who will appear also as guest conductor) would have found a great champion in Robert Schumann.

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every girl crazy ’bout a sharp dressed man

This evening’s concert included a surprise special treat for me! My dancer daughter was unexpectedly home and attended with me. Plus, it was delightfully warm and the terrace off the bar was a heavenly spot to sit and have a glass of wine with her before the concert began. It was a delicious way to begin an evening of beautiful music and, it turns out, beautiful musicians, as well.

I’d like to take a moment to laud the concertmaster, Margaret Batjer (beautiful person number one). She has held this position since 1998, has soloed with numerous major orchestras (the first time being at the age of 15) and is the creator of LACO’s Westside Connections chamber music series. She is a constant, strong presence at every performance I have seen and deserves a shout out. So, I SEE YOU, MARGARET!!

Guest conductor, Matthew Halls, was charming, energetic and expressive. He seemed very intelligent and precise in his interpretations of Prokofiev and Haydn and I appreciated his illumination of their similarities and where they diverged. Beautiful person number two accounted for…

Mason Bates wrote his remarkable Cello Concerto for the evening’s cellist, Joshua Roman. The concerto focused primarily on the abilities of the instrument itself, rather than a sound storyline. While not precisely my “cup of tea”, I enjoyed the integration of styles and sounds, the meshing of lyricism and percussion in the supporting orchestra. Joshua Roman is a treat: prodigal, sassy and emotive (his facial expressions!). His bowing and plucking were a visual and auditory delight. Such a natty dresser too (beautiful person number three). Big smiles and applause all around for this presentation from the audience. And in return for our love, a sweet, sweet encore for us from the adorable Mr. Roman.

Prokofiev’s first symphony was composed in 1917 while he was on holiday as an exercise in composing away from the piano (cuz I’m that productive on vacay, aren’t you?). He declared his intention was to create an original piece of music in the classical style inspired by Haydn while remaining true to his more modern sensibilities. SUCCESS! Classical in structure and form, but bitingly modern in its tonality and rife with his own devilish wit, it reminds me of a wolf in sheep’s clothing, something fiercely new packaged in the familiar symphonic proportions of Haydn. A delight.

Finally, Haydn’s the “Clock” Symphony (the Andante, with its ticking accompaniment, gives the symphony this nickname). This is my favorite of his. I feel like it was written for the crowd as well as the connoisseur. It’s filled with wonderful touches and the finale is nonstop brilliance. It moves with ease from simplicity to high drama. And those wonderful firm three chords at the end always make me smile. And the clock keeps running.

impress everyone with these five fascinating prokofiev facts!

Do you have your tickets for this weekend’s Prokofiev Classical concert? (If not, buy them here!) In addition to Prokofiev’s first symphony, called “Classical,” the program also features Haydn’s Symphony no. 101 (“The Clock”) and the Los Angeles premiere of Mason Bates’ Cello Concerto. And all ticket holders are invited to stick around for an after party featuring free drinks and appetizers! Need some icebreakers as you mix and mingle with other music aficionados? Try out these little-known facts about titular composer Sergei Prokofiev, including the famous piece he wrote in only four days, and the hobby that could also have made him a household name.

1) Prokofiev’s may perhaps be best known for “Peter and the Wolf” – an educational children’s piece he wrote in only four days. He wrote “Peter and the Wolf” as a favor to the Moscow Children’s Musical Theater, and offered to accept however much payment they could afford in their budget. Now it’s renowned the world over, but “Peter and the Wolf” got a slow start. It premiered on May 2, 1936, and, as Prokofiev himself noted, “[attendance] was poor and failed to attract much attention.”

2) “Peter and the Wolf” has the distinction of being recorded dozens of times over the past 100 years, and the list of famous names that have served as narrator is long and illustrious. Just a few of the notable narrators include: Bill Clinton, Sophia Loren, Antonio Banderas, Sharon Stone, Dame Edna Everage, Alice Cooper, Sting, Ben Kingsley, Sir John Gielgud (twice!), Eleanor Roosevelt, Alec Guinness, Boris Karloff, Mia Farrow, Sean Connery, Rob Reiner, David Bowie, and Carol Channing.
3) We have farm machinery to thank for bringing Prokofiev to the US for the first time. It was 1917 when Chicago businessman Cyrus McCormick Jr. went to Russia on business and met the 26-year-old Prokofiev. McCormick had never heard of Prokofiev, but Prokofiev was very familiar with the McCormick name, which was synonymous with farm equipment, as Prokofiev’s father managed a large farm that owned several machines that the McCormicks manufactured. McCormick ultimately recommended Prokofiev to the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, and Prokofiev attended the American debuts of two of his works in December 1918, leading the orchestra during one piece, and playing piano during the other.

The audience loved it, giving Prokofiev an enormous ovation. The reviews suggested a major new (and strange) voice was being heard. One headline read: “Russian Genius Displays Weird Harmonies.” Another critic wrote: “The music was of such savagery, so brutally barbaric, that it seemed almost grotesque to see civilized men, in modern dress with modern instruments performing it. By the same token, it was big, sincere, true.”
4) Sergei Prokofiev was also a very accomplished chess player, and could’ve possibly played professionally. He is one of very few players that beat José Raúl Capablanca, who would go on to be world champion, in a 1914 game. Prokofiev also beat contemporary Maurice Ravel in a chess game, and you can relive their match, move by move, here.
5) Prokofiev’s death was overshadowed by a much more prominent Russian’s death. Prokofiev died, at the age of 61, on March 5, 1953 – the same day as Joseph Stalin. Hordes of mourning people filled Red Square for days, and since Prokofiev lived near the square, the crowds prevented his body from being moved for three days. A leading music periodical, in their next issue, briefly mentioned Prokofiev’s passing on page 116. The first 115 pages were dedicated to Stalin.

Lastly, while you’re driving to Alex Theatre or Royce Hall this weekend for the concert, ruminate on this Prokofiev quote on the role of the composer and the purpose of art:
“In my view, the composer, just as the poet, the sculptor or the painter, is in duty bound to serve Man, the people. He must beautify human life and defend it. He must be a citizen first and foremost, so that his art might consciously extol human life and lead man to a radiant future. Such is the immutable code of art as I see it.”

fusion and multitasking

First things first – let me just say thank you to the universe for the timing of this particular program. My husband was NOT happy to attend with me on Sunday. He had just flown in from a trip and has been battling a heaping dose of the grungy cold virus that’s going around. He loves me and knows I don’t like going by myself to events, so he came along, grumbling… until he heard the word “jazz”. The light returned to his eyes and he perked up even further upon hearing “improvisation, vibraphone and percussion”. Yay!

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Gernot Wolfgang’s (yes Wolfgang and also an Austrian) “Sinfonia Concertante for Four Winds – The D.A.R.K. Knights” is a delicious salad of jazz and lively, lyrical classicism and was written specifically for David Shostac (flute), Allan Vogel (oboe), Richard Todd (horn) and Kenneth Munday (bassoon), who all together have about three hundred and fifty seven years of musical experience (I kid, but they are heavyweights). He wrote this piece to their specific abilities and the solos of Shostac and Todd included improvisation. We were also treated to percussive improvisation, wonderful “shivery” violins, the brass bending notes, and a level of attentive alertness to one another that I have not heretofore seen in this orchestra. Don’t misunderstand me, they are always cohesive and attentive musicians, but the format of this particular composition seemed to illicit a very noticeable uptick in each individual musician’s attention to the others. It was quite enjoyable and different, and as Bill Murray said in Groundhog Day, “different is good”. I’d love to hear more of this kind of music at LACO.

Clarinet Concerto in A Major. I did not know that Mozart wrote a concerto for the clarinet! Well, not exactly the clarinet, but a fusion of the clarinet and a basset horn called (surprise surprise) a basset clarinet, a custom deal that has a range down to low C, instead of stopping at E as standard clarinets do. Joshua Ranz, who looked a bit like the instrument he played, (long, tall, thin, dressed in black) was wonderfully charming in his on stage persona and made the most of the quick passage work and contrasting slow tempos. His solo was magnificent. I believe that Mozart shows the capabilities of an instrument in what he writes for it better than almost anyone. And the clarinet is a delight, the life of the party, as the program notes state.

For me, the particular appeal of Mozart’s Concerto in D Minor, is that it‘s only one of two written in a minor key, and the most overtly dark, dramatic and impassioned. Dramatic Mozart – wonderful! Still elegant and crisp, but somewhat stormy between the orchestra and piano, lovingly played by Maestro Kahane, the multitasker. Poor, poor Jeffrey. If only he were talented… conducting the orchestra, while playing the piano in one of Mozart’s most esteemed concertos (Beethoven kept it in his repertoire). It was so great to see him communicating with the orchestra in this layered way, creating a musical dialogue in which he not only directs the orchestra as a whole entity, but interacts with them, speaking essentially the same language, appropriating and embellishing their themes, enhancing both them and enriching the solo piano personality.
So, will you allow me a short rant? Thanks. It drives me bananas when audience members leap up after the last piece and bolt for the door so as to be first in line to get out of the parking garage. How much time do you really think you’re saving? It seems so dismissive of the orchestra. And you MISS things. On Sunday, if you bolted, you missed Jeff Kahane come back and play an encore (a diverting version of “America the Beautiful”). The scamperers who hadn’t made it completely out the door when he came back on found themselves hurrying back down the aisle and flinging themselves into the first available empty seats. It just seems wrong to me. I have never waited more than ten minutes in that parking lot after the show. Give the orchestra their due. Stay and clap for them, wait to hear the encore (it’s such a treat). They just gave their all to us for almost two hours, give them another 20 minutes of your time, please. End of rant.

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reflecting on 44 years with LACO

There aren’t many people who can say they’ve been with LACO since the early days, but Allan Vogel is one of them. He joined LACO in 1972, just a few years after LACO’s inaugural performance, and became principal oboe in 1974 – a position he’s held every since. Now, after 44 years with LACO, Allan is prepping for his retirement at this end of this season. Don’t fret! There are still chances to see Allan perform on our stage, including Baroque Conversations 3 at Zipper Concert Hall on Thursday. We asked Allan to reflect on his career and experiences, and, in this interview, he recalls how he came to join LACO, how he avoided embarrassment at the White House, and shares what he’ll miss most.

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LACO: You fell in love with oboe while in high school. What was it about that particular instrument that caught your ear?

Allan Vogel: I love the sound of the instrument. I went to the New York High School for Music and Art, as a voice major, and studied piano too. And I remember walking into the auditorium while the Bach Cantata 140 was being played. It has three oboes, and hearing them sparked something in my adolescent self, and it made me fall in love with the instrument. It took me a year or two to get to play the oboe, and I was really pent up during that time. When I finally started to play the oboe, I played it like crazy and have ever since.

You’ve been with LACO since 1972. How did this come about? Do you remember your initial audition?

Well, it’s an interesting story. I had just come to Los Angeles from New Haven, where I was a student at Yale. I was invited to play at Cafe Figaro, and I played a little recital on a Sunday morning. A contractor from LACO was there, and shortly after I was invited to join the group. Rules were different back then. Auditions now are a very organized kind of thing. In those days it was more of a freelance environment. I started as the second oboe, and at one point I was fired as second oboe – not by the music director, but by the first oboist – and then I was hired back as first oboe and he was fired, and we remained friends the whole time!

What have been some of the exciting changes you’ve witnessed as LACO has grown and evolved over the decades? 

When I started, under [then Music Diector] Neville Marriner, LACO was very small. Two weeks in the fall and two weeks in the spring. And then the seasons developed more and more. We played in the pit for the LA Opera. I never thought I’d play so much opera, but I did. We’ve done tours, and whether it’s to New York or in Europe, they were always exciting.

I’ve worked with five different music directors [Neville Marriner, Gerald Schwarz, Iona Brown, Christof Perick, and Jeffrey Kahane], and each have put their stamp on the orchestra. Jeffrey, of course, is the current music director, and I very much like his stamp. There’s always something very special in the atmosphere of this orchestra, and it comes from the high technical excellence of the musicians, and also a hunger in the community for an orchestra like ours. LACO is very special, and very much like an extended family.

What’s your favorite memory from playing during a state dinner at the White House in 2000?

I remember meeting President Clinton and Hillary. All the musicians had the opportunity to meet them, and it was a lot of fun. The performance was part of a two-day trip on the east coast, and the day before, my tuxedo got damaged. There was a tear in the vest. I was going to wear it on the second day anyway, but I was reminded that we were going to the White House. So I went and rented a tuxedo for the performance, and I’m glad I did, because when I met the President, he put his hand on my shoulder, right where the tear would’ve been!

Let’s talk about your retirement – we’re sad to see you go! Why retire now?

I just celebrated by 72nd birthday, so that’s one thing. Another is… well, I’ve been so obsessed with oboe for so long. It’s an extremely consuming kind of instrument – as much as any other. We oboists jokingly say we all have a ‘Type O personality.’ I’ve done so much with my oboe career, and I could keep doing it, but it seems like the right time to leave some time for other things.

Are you retiring from all aspects of your musical career? Will you continue to teach or record, for example?

I will still teach, and I want to play more piano, explore more of Bach’s works. I haven’t reflected much about the future, because I still have to focus on what I have to play now! I’m still fascinated by the instrument, and it’s my nature to practice daily. I just want to see how things evolve. A little change in my life wouldn’t be bad.

I’ve been teaching at Cal Arts for 45 years, at USC for 20, and at the Colburn School for 10, and I’ve had so many great students. I feel very fulfilled in the students I’ve had and still have. Four or five of my students went on to play for LACO! I’ve benefited in my career from lots of teachers that kept teaching as they got older, so why shouldn’t I keep doing it? I’ll teach and play better if I’m not driving all over the place!

What will you miss most about LACO?

I would say the music making, and my various colleagues, and this includes both current members and the ones that left before me. I was once the youngest member in the orchestra, and now I’m certainly one of the oldest. I’ll miss the audience, as well. We have a wonderful audience that we can really feel a connection with. In fact, I look forward to being in the audience, and hearing what they hear. You don’t hear the proper balance when you’re onstage, because some of the musicians aren’t facing you. I’d like to be in the audience and hear the first violins better!

Any advice for the new LACO principal oboe? They’ll have big shoes to fill!

I would recommend practicing a lot, as I do! But this is unneeded advice – whoever gets the position will surely be practicing a lot already.

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what’s in a cadenza?

One of the most exciting things in music is improvisation. It’s the musical equivalent of watching a tightrope walker go out to do a routine without a net. Some stylistic periods in music valued improvisation, while some valued virtuosity that was not necessarily improvised. The Classical period (approximately 1750 to the early years of the 19th century) put a premium on clean performances, concise rhythm, and clear forms, but not necessarily improvisation. Demonstrations of this skill still impressed audiences, of course. In the Classical period, one of the best places to hear a bit of improvisation was in a concerto. Most of the solo part of a concerto is meticulously written out, but there is one moment where the soloist is alone in the spotlight: the cadenza.

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The cadenza was traditionally an extended improvised section that appeared at a predetermined time at the end of a concerto’s first movement—although it could appear anywhere. If a composer was playing his own piece, as Mozart did with his piano concertos, the cadenza gave him a chance to show off his improvisational skills on top of his compositional skills. If he wasn’t the intended soloist, a composer might have also written out a cadenza to be played by someone else. In his career, Mozart often dashed off these pieces so quickly he barely wrote out his own parts at all, choosing to fill in the blanks after the premiere had passed and the deadline had ceased to loom. These days, the soloists who play Mozart’s concertos often stick closely to the written music—including cadenzas, although that’s not at all a strict rule. In the 20th century, pianist Friedrich Wührer composed cadenzas to three of Mozart’s Piano Concertos, so clearly the field of what to do at the moment of the cadenza is still wide open. LACO’s own Jeffrey Kahane has played and conducted all of Mozart’s Piano Concertos, so if you’re looking for an expert on what to do for the Classical cadenza, you’d be hard-pressed to find someone more qualified than him.

The tradition of the cadenza stretches out to the period before Mozart—the Baroque—and of course continues today. J.S. Bach wrote a scintillating cadenza for the harpsichord in his Fifth Brandenburg Concerto. Beethoven often wrote his own cadenzas to previously existing pieces, even notating his own cadenza for Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 20 (on our program). And it should be noted that Beethoven wasn’t really interested in other soloists adding their own personal touches to his work; in his “Emperor” Concerto, Beethoven makes his own written-out cadenza a demand, not a request. There are vocal cadenzas in the 19th-century operas of Rossini and Bellini. There are two cadenzas in the first movement of Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto, No. 1. Johannes Brahms, who was not a virtuoso violinist, allowed his friend Joseph Joachim—friend and dedicatee—to write the cadenza for his Violin Concerto. The cadenza provides an opportunity for a composer to write something fun and exciting outside of the structure of the main piece, but also gives the soloist a moment to shine all alone. When the composer and soloist were one and the same, like Mozart was or Beethoven (early in his career), this was advantageous. The cadenza was a way to show off not just the creative endurance to write a long-form piece like a concerto, but also to showcase your own daring, your improvisational skills, your resourcefulness, inventiveness. It was the tightrope without a net. There’s still a bit of that thrill in live performance, whether improvised or not. That’s why we still play this music in live concerts, hundreds of years after it was created: to recapture that thrill of being “in the moment.”

LACO’s upcoming concert features two concertos by Mozart, one for Clarinet and one for Piano (No. 20). As I mentioned, Jeffrey Kahane will be leading Piano Concerto No. 20 from the solo instrument, and our very own Joshua Ranz will be the soloist for Mozart’s Clarinet Concerto. LACO’s latest also features the world premiere of a new work, Gernot Wolfgang’s Sinfonia Concertante for Four Winds. Wolfgang is a native Austrian like his program-mate, Mozart. This upcoming concert will be a great opportunity to hear music that is established, admired, and classic, and—with the premiere of Gernot Wolfgang’s Sinfonia— something entirely new. The performances ahead are bound to be a wonderful reminder of the excitement of live performance and the pure joy of the musical experience.

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sinfonia concertante for four winds – “The D.A.R.K. Knights”

Early in 2015 LACO offered me a commission to write a Sinfonia Concertante that would feature the long-serving LACO principal wind players David Shostac (flute), Allan Vogel (oboe), Richard Todd (horn) and Kenneth Munday (bassoon). Naturally I accepted and was thrilled about the opportunity, especially since I would be writing for fabulous soloists with whose playing and instrumental sounds I had become familiar over the years!

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After a few days of ruminating on how to approach the composition I decided to take the Sinfonia Concertante concept one step further and additionally highlight the four soloists by giving each of them a mini concerto within the piece. The composition’s full title was the result of serendipity – I’ll let you figure out what it means!

Once I started writing it quickly became clear that the piece would be in one movement, and that the Sinfonia Concertante sections would take care of establishing its main thematic material and general harmonic environment. Also, these would be the more energetic parts of the composition and they would bookmark the four mini concertos, which in turn would represent the more lyrical aspects of the piece. I liked the idea of introducing the soloists via a main theme that would be played in unison by all of them, each in a different octave.

Then, out of the blue, a “fifth element” revealed itself. I had never included a drum set in my concert pieces before, but instantly felt that this would be the right occasion to do so. As it turned out, the drums fulfill several distinct functions within the composition – to support motoric string section rhythms, to independently generate grooves behind atmospheric orchestral textures, and also to venture into the world of free jazz by complimenting some passages with improvised, and not necessarily synchronized gestures.

But back to our four soloists. In the outer, Sinfonia Concertante segments they are featured in above-mentioned thematic multi-octave unison passages, in duos (flute-oboe and horn-bassoon), as well as in brief individual solos. Acknowledging the jazz background of flutist David Shostac and hornist Richard Todd, they both have the opportunity of improvising some of their solos, if they choose to do so (written-out alternate solos are notated in the score).

In the four lyrical mini-concertos I wanted to create unique, personal sonic environments for each of the soloists. The principal source of inspiration for these was each musician’s distinct instrumental sound. Musically, the mini-concertos are related to each other through an introductory chord progression established by the strings, and through textural orchestral material already introduced during the opening Sinfonia Concertante segment.

It is always a treat for a composer to be able to write for excellent soloists whom you have heard perform many times, and whom you know on a personal level. Also, having previously worked with LACO and attended many of the orchestra’s concerts, I am familiar with the unique, refined sound of the ensemble as a whole. Now I can imagine maybe a little bit how Haydn must have felt.

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the circle of life: time is a flat circle or what goes around, comes around…

Last night’s program at Royce Hall was an interesting one for me. I heard sublime music. The listening experience was delightful. I do not know why every performance by this wonderful orchestra isn’t completely sold out. They are A MAZ ING. Los Angelenos need to get a clue…

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Faure’s Pavane ebbs and flows in a series of lovely harmonic and melodic climaxes. For me, it’s reminiscent of Proust’s ‘Remembrance of Things Past’. It brings to mind a person remembering earlier days of adventure and travel (it has a hint of the exotic in it). It also reminds me of the lyric from Billy Joel’s ‘Piano Man’, “Son, can you play me a memory, I’m not really sure how it goes, but it’s sad and it’s sweet and I knew it complete when I wore a younger man’s clothes.” It is sad and sweet. And short, an amuse-bouche, but for the ears (amuse-les oreilles?).

Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony No. 2 follows on this theme in terms of returning to one’s past. This piece is impressive to me in its construction and was expertly executed, but I am not as moved by this style of music and so the story of this piece is more interesting to me than the piece itself. Schoenberg began work on this Symphony in 1906, put it away and brought it out again a few times and finally let it rest, unfinished in 1916. He returned to complete the work 33 years later subsequent to a request from conductor Fritz Stiedry, who asked him for an orchestral piece for his New Friends of Music Orchestra in New York. Schoenberg wrote to Stiedry, “For a month I have been working on the Second Chamber Symphony. I spend most of the time trying to find out ‘What was the author getting at here? Indeed, my style has greatly deepened meanwhile, and I find it hard to reconcile what I then rightly wrote, trusting my sense of form and not thinking too much, with my current extensive demands in respect of ‘visible’ logic. Today that is one of the major difficulties, for it also affects the material.” I don’t know if his return to this piece was sentimental, but it is interesting to observe the return to tonality in his later years. Small and unrelated bit of trivia for y’all: Arnold had triskaidekaphobia (fear of the number 13).

In my opinion, Ravel’s Ma Mere l’Oye was the musical high point of the evening. Ravel’s music is often described as exquisite, and this orchestral version of Mother Goose is certainly that. It‘s full of subtle details and wildly varying combinations of sounds. I am pretty sure I heard every sound that each of the instruments is capable of making in this one piece! There was screeching and plucking and tapping and delicacy and the lowest of the lows to the highest of the highs. It is unique and authentic and, I believe, reveals something of Ravel’s basic nature: playful, seeking, articulate and adventurous. Again, another reflection on the theme of remembrance, childhood and things past.

In comparison with his 7th and 9th, Beethoven’s Symphony No. 8 in F Major, Op. 93 is much lighter and good humored. It continued the night’s trend of remembrance of things past, retreating to a classical style as he did in his even-numbered symphonies. It is buoyant and witty (the first and last measures of the 1st movement are the same), the minuet contains false downbeats and his “little Symphony in F” concludes with a long and charismatic coda. Because Beethoven, right?

All of this beautiful music was brought to us through a marvelous collaboration between the orchestra and their guest conductor, Matthew Pintscher. Maestro Pintscher is a busy guy. He’s director of Ensemble Intercontemporain, is formally associated with the BBC Scottish Symphony and the Danish National Symphony and is the newly appointed principal conductor of the Lucerne Festival Academy Orchestra. He also teaches composition at the Juilliard School in New York. He’s really good. LACO is really good and they were really good together. The sound he draws from the orchestra is clean and precise, like a fine point pen, but it’s also full and emotionally lush. He gave them his full attention and they gave him theirs. Shades of things to come? We shall have to wait and see. As I said, he’s a very busy guy.

The only thing I missed in this performance was Maestro Kahane’s commentary. Being a musical “newbie”, I really enjoy his contextualization of the pieces. The “signposts” he provides during his comments, help me draw more from the performances and I come away feeling enriched in my understanding of the music and curious to know more. I look forward to hearing more from him when he returns next month.

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